Posted on 3rd May 2017 22:53:22 in Proofreading
(Post was wriitten and proofread by International Student "Androsov Alek" and posted as it is)
This method determined the position of any English researcher and acted in all fields of science and at all stages of the research. Deviation from this method was not allowed. Now the method of dialectical and historical materialism no longer meets the socio-political realities of today and therefore can not be used.
Scientific activity in our time is saved from ideological dictatorship. In its methodological basis, criteria of objectivity, conformity to truth, historical truth, moral criteria are now placed.
The ideological basis can no longer be dogmatized views. Methodological sources of research in our days are increasingly the works of leading domestic and foreign scientists, free of ideological attitudes, as well as those researchers who previously were considered reactionary, and their achievements pseudoscientific. Most special problems of specific sciences and even individual stages of their research require the use of special methods of solution. Of course, such methods are very specific. Naturally, therefore, that they are studied, developed and improved in specific, special sciences. They are never arbitrary, tk. Are determined by the nature of the object under study. In addition to special methods characteristic of certain areas of scientific knowledge, there are general methods of scientific knowledge that, unlike special methods, are used throughout the research process and in the most diverse sciences one of them is proofreading of theses.
General methods of scientific knowledge are usually divided into three large groups:
Observation is an active cognitive process, based primarily on the work of the sense organs of man and his material material activity. This is the most elementary method, acting, as a rule, as one of the elements in the composition of other empirical methods.
In daily activities and in science, observations should lead to results that do not depend on the will, feelings and desires of the subjects. To become the basis for subsequent theoretical and practical actions, these observations should inform us about the objective properties and relations of really existing objects and phenomena. In order to be a fruitful method of cognition, observation must satisfy a number of requirements, the most important of which are:
Observation as a means of cognition gives primary information about the world in the form of a set of empirical statements. Comparison is one of the most common methods of cognition. It is not without reason that "everything is known in comparison". Comparison allows us to establish the similarity and difference of objects and phenomena of reality. As a result of comparison, the general that is inherent in two or several objects is established, and the identification of the general, repeating in phenomena, as is known, is a step on the way to cognition of laws and laws. In order for the comparison to be fruitful, it must satisfy two basic requirements. The first requirement: only such phenomena should be compared, between which a certain objective community can exist. The second requirement: for the cognition of objects, their comparison must be carried out according to the most important, essential (in terms of a specific cognitive task) characteristics.
By comparing, information about an object can be obtained in two different ways. First, it can act as a direct result of the comparison. Secondly, very often the receipt of primary information does not act as the main purpose of comparison, this goal is to obtain secondary or derived information that is the result of processing primary data. The most common and most important way to do this is by analogy. Measurement, in contrast to comparison, is a more accurate cognitive tool. Measurement is the procedure for determining the numerical value of a certain value by means of a unit of measurement. The value of this procedure is that it provides accurate, quantified information about the surrounding reality. The most important indicator of the quality of a proofread and edited measurement, its scientific value is accuracy without English mistakes, which depends on the diligence of the scientist, on the methods used by him, but mainly on the available measuring instruments.
Among the empirical methods of scientific cognition, the measurement takes roughly the same place as observation and comparison. An experiment is a special case of observation. A method of scientific research that involves interfering with the natural conditions of the existence of objects and phenomena or the reproduction of certain aspects of objects and phenomena in specially created conditions for the purpose of studying them without complicating the process of accompanying circumstances.
Experimental study of objects in comparison with observation has several advantages:
Any experiment can be carried out either directly with the object, or with the "substitute"
This object in cognition is a model. The use of models makes it possible to apply the experimental method of research to such objects, direct operation with which is difficult or even impossible. Therefore, modeling is a special method and is widely used in science. The purpose of this method is to study certain social phenomena in relatively small collectives. Let us now consider the methods used at the empirical and theoretical level of research. These methods include abstraction, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction. Abstraction has a universal character in mental activity, for each step of thought is associated with this process or with the use of its result. The essence of this method consists in a mental abstraction from inessential properties, connections, relations, proofreading, objects, and in the simultaneous isolation and fixation of one or several of the sides of these subjects of interest to the researcher. Distinguish the process of abstraction and the result of abstraction, called abstraction. Usually, the result of abstraction is understood as knowledge of some aspects of objects. The process of abstraction is a set of operations leading to the receipt of such a result (abstraction). Examples of abstractions are innumerable concepts that people use not only in science, but also in everyday life: wood, house, road, liquid, etc.
The process of abstraction in the system of logical thinking is closely connected with other methods of research and, above all, with analysis and synthesis.
Analysis is a method of scientific research by decomposing an object into its component parts. Synthesis represents the compound of the parts obtained in the analysis into a whole. The methods of analysis and synthesis in scientific creativity are organically linked and can take various forms depending on the properties of the object under study and the purpose of the study. Depending on the degree of knowledge of the object, from the depth of penetration into its essence, analysis and synthesis of various kinds are used. Direct or proofreading analysis and synthesis is applied at the stage of superficial acquaintance with the object. In this case, the separation of individual parts during proofreading of the object, the discovery of its properties, the simplest measurements, the fixation of a given one, lying on the surface of the common. Proofreading analysis and synthesis makes it possible to know the phenomenon, but to penetrate into its essence it is insufficient.
Return or elementary-theoretical analysis and synthesis is widely used as a powerful tool to achieve the moments of the essence of the phenomenon being studied. Here, the analysis and synthesis operations are not carried out mechanically. They are based on some theoretical considerations, such as the assumption of a cause-effect relationship of various phenomena, the effect of some regularity and proofreading. The deepest understanding of the object is made possible by structural-genetic analysis and synthesis. Moreover, there are further assumptions about some cause-effect relationship. This type of analysis and synthesis requires the isolation in the complex phenomenon of such elements, such links that represent the most central, the most important in them, their "cell", which has a decisive influence on all other aspects of the essence of the object. A historical method is used to study complex developing objects. It is used only where the history of the object becomes the object of study in one way or another.
From the methods of theoretical study, we consider the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete. The ascent from the abstract to the concrete represents the universal form of the movement of scientific knowledge, the law of the representation of reality in thought. According to this method, the process of cognition is divided into two relatively independent stages. At the first stage there is a transition from the sensible-concrete, from the concrete in reality to its abstract definitions. A single object is dismembered, described by a variety of concepts and judgments. It seems to "evaporate", turning into a set of abstractions fixed by thinking, one-sided definitions. The second stage of the process of cognition is the ascent from the abstract to the concrete. Its essence consists in the movement of thought from the abstract definitions of the object, i.e. From the abstract in knowledge, to the concrete in knowledge. At this stage, as if the original integrity of the object is restored, it is reproduced in all its multifacetedness - but already in thinking and shold be proofread. Both stages of cognition are closely interrelated. The ascent from the abstract to the concrete is impossible without a prior "anatomy" of the object by thought, without ascent from the concrete in reality to its abstract definitions. Thus, it can be said that the considered. The method is a process of cognition, according to which thinking rises from the concrete in reality to the abstract in thinking and from it - to the concrete in thinking.